Schizophrenia: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Schizophrenia: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Schizophrenia: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment


The word Schizophrenia is derived from the Greek language which roughly means “Splitting of Mind”. This word is less than 100 years old. Very firstly this disorder was identified by Dr. Emile Karepline in the 19th century. Emile was director of the Psychiatric clinic at a university in Estonia. Karepline used the term Dementia Praecox or premature dementia . However, her understanding was incomplete about Schizophrenia. After this Eugen Bleuler improved Krapelin’s concept of  Dementia. He used the term Schizophrenia.


It is defined as the separation of function between thinking, memory, perception, and personality. Schizophrenic people feel far from reality, they have hallucinations and delusions, difficulty in thinking, and understanding. This is a chronic Disorder. This leads to impairment in the functioning of mental health. People behave abnormally, while losing their senses, and react like they are living in another world. Many pieces of research show that this occurs in men and women equally. People who are suffering from Schizophrenia, they are younger than the normal population.


This occurs in an episodic manner. Initially, people lose their senses with reality. They can’t differentiate between real and unreal things. Symptoms can change over time and with the severity of disorder. However, if proper diagnosis or treatment is not given, the severity will be increased and will reduce life span. Alcohol and drugs can cause an increase in symptoms.

Specific Psychotic Symptoms:

  • Hallucinations
  • Delusions
  • Beliefs and behavior
  • Exaggeration
  • Hearing unreal voices

Pessimistic Psychotic symptoms:

  • Speaking difficulty
  • Loss of cognition & thinking
  • Feeling or Sensing difficulty
  • Emotional disturbance

Unsystematic Psychotic Symptoms:

  • Perplexed
  • Huddled in thinking and speech
  • Difficulty with plausible thinking
  • Unusual behavior or abnormal movements.

Debilitated Cognition:

  • Attention problem
  • Memory and Renounce
  • Educational Performance

In early adulthood, symptoms appear. Men may have symptoms in teen-age like the early 20s. Women may show the first sign in their 20s and early 30s. Before diagnosing, the psychiatrist should check medical reports of the individual.

Causes of Schizophrenia

However, the exact cause of schizophrenia is still unknown. Many pieces of research have done but the exact cause is not found. Some expected causes are like,

  • Genealogical Factors
  • Intellectually
  • Abnormality of Cognition
  • Socio-environment Factor

Genealogical Factors: Schizophrenia may be transferred through genetically. Maybe the affected person’s parents or ancestors have this disorder and transferred by them genetically.

Intellectually: Intellectually maybe people are disturbed and their neurotransmitters are not working well.

Abnormality of Cognition: Maybe abnormal brain structure cause this but all patient are not included, some of them are suffering from this cause.

Socio-environmental Factors: High stressful environmental factors also cause schizophrenia. Painful and traumatic situations or incidents are also involved.

How to diagnose Schizophrenia

There isn’t any instrument or any laboratory test for schizophrenia. It is diagnosed by symptoms. Firstly the doctor takes a proper medical of patients in the form of the blood test, brain, and imaginary test. If any genetic issue not found then the patient should be checked by a psychiatrist or psychologist, they are trained to diagnose a mental health problem.  The psychologist uses special kinds of assessment tools and planned interviews for the evaluation of a psychotic patient. The psychologist or therapist will diagnose the patient based on medical reports, family reports, and individuals’ interviews and psychologist own observation & assessment.

An individual is asses with schizophrenia if he has at least two of these symptoms for at least 6 months:

  • Delusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Disorganized speech
  • Disorganized or catatonic behavior
  • Negative symptoms
  • One of the symptoms has to be
  • Delusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Disorganized speech

Treatment of Schizophrenia

It can be treated by various methods:

  1. Medication(Antipsychotic Medicines)
  2. Therapies (Family therapy, Group therapy, Rehabilitation, Psychotherapy, Electroconvulsive therapy)
  3. Hospitalization (by medical care).

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